The physical nature of centrifugal and centripetal forces

Centrifugal and centripetal forces are found in our everyday life everywhere and almost every day. When the car turns sharply, centrifugal force pushes us against the wall of the car. When the car exits the turn, the wall of the car, which acts as a centripetal force, returns us to our previous position. A pebble hitting us from under the wheel of a truck reminds us that there is some force that set this pebble in motion. We usually attribute this to centrifugal forces. When we rotate a bucket of water on a string in a vertical plane, we see that water does not pour out of the bucket even when it is upside down. After all, something keeps her in a bucket, despite the fact that the force of gravity acts on her. We believe that this is centrifugal force. We know that the Moon is attracted by the Earth's gravity, but the Moon still does not approach the Earth and will not fall on it in any way. The centrifugal force seems to be to blame. The molten pieces of metal are lifted from the rotating grinding stone in the form of a beautiful stream under the action of the same forces. As you can see, there are a great many phenomena in which the action of centrifugal forces is observed.

Likewise, we observe a lot of centripetal forces. The rope that holds the bucket of water while rotating, the outer ring of the ball bearing keeps balls or rollers from scattering, keeping planets and stars in orbits - all these are examples of centripetal forces.

It is believed that the centrifugal and centripetal forces of the antipodes, if one force tries to move the body in one direction, then the other will necessarily act in the opposite direction, seeking to compensate for the actions of the first. But at this stage of understanding these forces, we see a huge difference between them.

The fact is that when observing a centripetal force, we can always indicate the physical carrier of a given force. For example, if we see some body lying on a rotating circle, and it is not moving anywhere, then we say that the friction forces compensate for the centrifugal force. Friction forces represent centripetal force. As soon as the rotation speed increases, the centrifugal force, in our opinion, will exceed the friction force, that is, the centripetal force, and the body will slide off the rotating circle. In this case, the adhesion between the atoms of the circle and the body is the physical carrier of this force.

Between the rotating bucket and the hand, the centripetal force is represented by a string of atoms in the form of a rope. The physical representative of the centripetal force for a ball in a ball bearing is the outer ring. Gravity keeps planets in orbits.

And what is the bearer of centrifugal force, if any? The TSB gives such definitions of this force.

“Centrifugal force, the force with which a moving material point acts on a body (connection), constraining the freedom of movement of the point and forcing it to move curvilinearly.

When applied to the solution of problems of the dynamics of d'Alembert of the principle of the term "C. with." sometimes give a different meaning and are called Ts. with. the component of the inertial force of a material point directed along the main normal to the trajectory. Occasionally Ts. is also called the normal component of the transfer force of inertia when drawing up the equations of relative motion ”.

As you can see, there are attempts to connect centrifugal force with inertial forces, and this is absolutely true. But since in modern science there is no clear concept of what represent inertial forces , which is a physical carrier of inertia, then the formulation of centrifugal force is vague and hazy.

Indeed, we always represent the force of inertia as a passive force. When a certain force acts on the body, the body, due to inertia, resists this force, never exceeding its powers. What force acts on the body, exactly with such force the body responds to this effect. No more, no less.

The force of inertia can maintain momentum when the body moves by inertia. Of course, seeing a stone flying from under the wheel of a car, we can say that it flies by inertia, like a bullet fired from a rifle. The bullet received a momentum from gunpowder, compressed air, or something else. And where did the stone get its impulse? We can say that from the wheel, but this is not entirely true.

Put a ball on a frictionless plane (ice) and try to move it with a rotating stick, like a clock hand. If there is minimal friction between the stick and the ball, then we will see that the ball will begin to move not only to the side, but also along the stick. By turning the stick 360 0 , at a certain stick length, you can see the displacement of the ball along the stick. On the other hand, we see that the force of the impact of the stick on the ball passes all the time through its center, and therefore cannot move the ball from the center of rotation of the stick in any way. On the contrary, it seems to us that we are “raking” the ball towards the center of rotation of the stick. So we are trying to roll a ball, apple or some other round object with a stick. But some force all the time seeks to move these objects away from us. As we will see below, this is the centrifugal force.

It would seem that in this case it would be possible to build a centrifugal force in the classical form. Here the wand presses the ball. For the ball to move and not rotate, the force applied to the ball must pass through its center. This force can be decomposed into two components: one along the stick, and the other perpendicular to the stick. The force along the stick is the centrifugal force. Rice. 1a.

So it is, so. But where did the wand get this power F ? If our ball had no mass, then the stick does not need to apply any force. It would be something of an empty body, with nothing to apply force. And without the massive ball would move behind the stick, as if glued. But as soon as mass appears, it will immediately emit an inertial photon, which will slow down the ball and, as a reaction according to Newton's third law, a force will appear from the side of the rod, which we have decomposed into two components. We can say that without an inertial photon, no centrifugal force is possible.

Of course, it is possible to build centrifugal force in the concept that we intuitively put into this phenomenon - "the force moving the body from the center." For example, such a model is shown in Figure 1.

Consider a wheel in which, instead of a spoke, there is a structure of two springs A and B with a body C attached between the springs. The spring B is fixed in the center of the wheel, and the spring A is hinged to the rim. Springs are initially compressed, that is, stretched. The balance point of the stresses of the springs is the point 1 , in which our body rests until the wheel rotates. If we detach the body from the spring A , then the body will begin to move under the action of the spring B to the center of the wheel. This force acts as a centripetal force. If the body is disconnected from the spring B , then the body under the action of the spring A will move from the center of the wheel, and strictly from the center of the wheel. Such force appears to us as centrifugal force.

Let's spin the wheel at some speed. When the speed is established, the body will leave point 1 and stop, for example, at point 2 and will move along the trajectory s . If you break the connection between the body and the spring B , then experiment will show that the body will move along the vector 2i . As the speed of rotation increases, the stress in the spring A will become less and less. The component of the body's velocity from the tension of the spring A (direction 2k ) will become less and less and the vector 2i will be more and more pressed against the vector 2j . And when the stress in the spring A becomes equal to zero, these vectors will coincide.

When the spring A pulled the body to the rim, it was clear to us that the covalent bonds between the metal atoms were somehow strained in the stretched spring and then, when compressed, the spring pulled the body to the edge of the wheel. But what physical processes created some addition of force to the force of the spring, that together they moved the body from point 1 to point 2 when the wheel rotated? Within the molecular or atomic point of view, there is no answer to this question. And from the point of view of quantum physics this issue is solved.

Consider a body in the form of an electron on a thread in the absence of any forces, including gravity (Fig. 2 a)).

This state of bodies can be maintained for as long as you like. We will pull force Fн by the thread to the center О , if the body is represented by one electron then it will emit a photon corresponding to the energy, which will create an inertial force in the form of an inertial force F and . If there were no inertial force, the body would acquire the speed mv n = F n t . But the force of inertia will extinguish part of the speed by mv and = F and t . With the speed v = v n - v and the body will move to the center, where v n - speed from the thread tension force, v and - speed from forces of inertia.

This division of forces is an interesting process. The question is - in what proportion is the exciting force divided between the kinetic energy of the electron and the photon emitted by it? In essence, this is the division of the energy of the applied force into the kinetic and potential energies of the electron. This is described in the article "Impact of force on an electron" .

If the body contains not one electron, but two, then the same impulse Fн will give the body a speed equal to v/2 . The greater the body mass, the less speed it will receive from the same impulse (Fig. 2 b)).

Let the body in the form of an electron move with the speed V along the trajectory b (Fig. 2 c)) ... At the point а it is attached to the thread. If there were no thread, then the body would move along the trajectory b , along a straight trajectory. At the point a the thread has no effect on the body. Then the thread will be pulled.

At some point, pulling the rope will change the electron's speed from V to V1 , due to the added speed v . A change in the speed of an electron will lead to the emission of an inertial photon F and , due to centripetal acceleration. The impulse of this photon with its components Fт will extinguish the speed V1 up to the speed V , and the centrifugal force, which is Fц , will return the electron to its original orbit (Fig. 2d)).

The centrifugal force will move the body from the point of attachment of the thread, the thread will stretch again and again create a centripetal impulse. The process will be repeated again, and the body will move in a circular orbit, oscillating around a certain average circle. The thread tension will increase and decrease. The centrifugal force will change accordingly. These values will depend on the speed V , on the body weight and the length of the thread. In the steady state, the centripetal force in the form of thread tension will flow through the inertial photon into centrifugal force, and the centrifugal force will transform into thread tension, provoking the generation of a photon.

The average value of these forces is the same in magnitude and opposite in sign. Its value is determined by the formula:

where, m - body weight, v - body speed, r - thread length.

An attentive reader can immediately find a flaw in this model. The electron in each cycle emits a photon and, in the end, must evaporate completely. This is true. One electron cannot move like that. He can only move in this way as part of an atom. The atom will extinguish the inertial impulse, slow down the electron, and the electron will be obliged to absorb the corresponding photon in order to occupy the previous level in the atom. We must never forget that we live in the world of photons, much denser than the world of the air around us.

From the above, we can conclude that centrifugal force is represented by inertial photons , which are generated by the body during its acceleration.

We have considered the movement of one electron on a string. If a body rotates on a string, then there will be many electrons in it, which will behave as described above. But the rest of the electrons may not participate in the formation of centrifugal force. Although it may be that the electrons not participating in this process at a given orbital speed will begin to act at a different speed, and the electrons previously involved in the process can leave the game. This happens because in any body there are many electrons with different absolute speeds.

And what happens if the centripetal force is not the tension of the thread, but gravity?

Almost the same processes occur if the role of the thread is played by gravity. Just short-range of the thread and body is replaced by the long-range action of the body emitting photons of gravity to the attracted body. Here it is only important that there are resonance pairs (photon - electron). In this case, the body is gravitationally attracted and other electrons generate inertial photons, which creates a centrifugal force.

From what has been said, we can draw the following conclusion:

The physical carrier of centrifugal force is inertial photons.

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