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2. What does modern science know about quantum?

3. What are the claims to the classical understanding of the quantum?

4. What does a quantum of energy consist of?

5. Schematic device of an electromagnetic quantum

6. Interaction of quanta.

7. Magnetoelectric quanta device.

8. Conclusion.

Will I answer the question with a question? Why do we need knowledge about brick? Imagine we don't know anything about brick. We don’t know what it consists of, we don’t know how to make it, we don’t know what its properties are and more. Imagine a brick suddenly disappeared all over the earth. Almost all buildings on earth, all infrastructure, all industry will be destroyed. Blast furnaces will collapse, there will be no industrial metal, even the Eskimo dwellings made of ice bricks will disappear, and so on. You will say that this is fantastic? Yes, this is fantastic, but only that the brick will suddenly disappear, and the rest is reality. And so it will be. This can be easily verified on any object containing bricks. Here is an ordinary building brick and can be called a quantum. But a quantum of what? Quantum of bricks. Naturally, it is man-made and therefore its minimum value is not strictly defined. But it seems not entirely correct to imagine, or even more so to produce, building bricks smaller than a matchbox.

To our surprise, this is how the entire Universe is arranged.
It consists of small bricks that almost everyone knows about. These are atoms and molecules.
There can be as much water as you like, but not less than one molecule. Molecule H _{ 2 } O is a quantum of water (water brick).
All kinds of reservoirs, glaciers, clouds and the like are built from these bricks).
Break the water molecule and it is no longer water. The Fe atom is a quantum of iron. If an atom is smaller than an atom of iron, then it is no longer iron.
The same for other elements.

And in relation to atoms and molecules, the quanta are the electron, proton and neutron. The sodium atom cannot contain half an electron or three quarters of a neutron. Everything should contain its own portion, although not strict in quantity, but necessarily strict in structure

And even deeper what? Scientists have been saying that protons and neutrons consist of quarks and gluons for a long time, but they believe that a quark alone cannot exist and therefore cannot be detected in any way. It is impossible to break this glue - gluon. An electron is only said to have mass, charge and spin. Further there is a gap in the understanding of nature. But concepts and objects appear: quantum and photon. As we will see further, these are the bricks of energy from which our Universe is built. Knowing everything about these bricks and learning how to build them, we will be able to solve any problems, because this is the basis of “everything” that scientists are trying to solve with the help of mathematics.

Much has been said about quanta, but far from everything.

The term quantum was first coined by Max Planck in 1900. It was defined as a kind of minimal particle of energy.
A smaller portion of energy in this form cannot be observed in nature.
Large portions of energy in nature can be of any size, but they will necessarily contain an integer number of minimum portions of energy.
The size of the portion of energy, according to Planck's assumption, is described by the frequency of the quantum.
If the frequency of the quantum is 190, then the value of the energy of this portion is proportional to this frequency, etc.
This dependence is mathematically described by the relationship: ** E = hv **. Here

Here is some information about the quantum can be gleaned from any encyclopedia. This information is more than a century old. And what new information about the quantum has appeared in more than a hundred years? Has the quantum become more understandable to us? Why can a quantum only be whole? What generates it and how? What are its constituents? Why does nature need it and how does it work in nature? So far, neither classical nor alternative science gives an answer to these and other questions, and in general these questions are not widely discussed. There are not too many hypotheses on these phenomena.

If you try on the Internet to find information on the link "quantum", then you will receive many articles in which will be told about nuclear gamma resonance, where the acting objects are gamma photons or gamma rays (Mossbauer effect). You will learn that the internal temperature of megoscopic bodies of large mass is determined by the quantum properties of a gravitating body (Temperature of a gravitational body), and about the quantization of velocities in the form of a quantum of velocity circulation (CVC), or a quantum vortex, which is the basic law of nature that works at all levels of matter our universe (which is true). And many more, what else.

If you look at Wikipedia, you will find out that the quanta of some fields have special names.:

• photon - quantum of the electromagnetic field;

• gluon - a quantum of a vector (gluon) field in quantum chromodynamics (provides strong interaction);

• graviton - hypothetical quantum of the gravitational field;

• Higgs boson - quantum of the Higgs field;

• phonon - quantum of vibrational motion of a crystal.

• chronon - hypothetical time quantum

In other sources, information about the quantum will be about the same. But, unfortunately, you will nowhere be able to find a clear explanation of what is the difference or what is the same, for example, a photon and a gluon, or a graviton and a photon, etc. But all these concepts are united by the concept of quantum, albeit with the unfair addition of “hypothetical” for the graviton. To put all these concepts in order, you need to understand what a quantum of energy is.

Although the concept of a quantum, introduced by Planck, referred to electromagnetic radiation and therefore this quantum represented energy, sages scientists blurred this concept down to something small, some part of something. Even for something that does not belong to the concept of energy at all. For example, chronon. All fields are quantized so that they can be described by mathematics. A whole science has appeared - quantum field theory. And this devalues the concept of a quantum.

It was mentioned above that the energy of a quantum depends on its frequency. Let's turn to the minimum quantum. How should this frequency be interpreted? What is this one hesitation? Or a few hesitations? If there are several, then I would like to know how many? What is the amplitude of these fluctuations? The amplitude is still indifferent to us, and the number of oscillations we can choose only the first or the second. The minimum quantum is one oscillation or if there are several, but necessarily a fixed number of oscillations, otherwise the energy of the quantum is uncertain. A monochromatic wave has infinite energy. This is what caused Planck to quantize the radiation in order to avoid an ultraviolet catastrophe. We will assume that the minimum quantum is one oscillation.

Now let's imagine a quantum with double energy. It must have 2 vibrations, that is, double the frequency (conventionally - 2 hertz). The actual frequency of oscillations of the magnetic and electric fields in a quantum, as we can assume below, extends to frequencies of 10 ^{ 40 }.
So one cycle of oscillation of the components of the quantum is completed in about 1/10 ^{ 40 } part of a second.
This is a fairly short period of fluctuation. But frequencies can only be compared over the same time interval.
This means that the length of quanta of single and double energy must be the same.

Approximately as shown in Fig. 1.

Quantum ** а ** - a single quantum, more precisely with one portion of energy, quantum

** From these considerations, it follows that it is problematic to determine the energy of a quantum using frequency.
And the second assumption, which does not speak in favor of the generally accepted formula for the energy of a quantum, is the difficulty of constructing a model for the generation of quanta with different frequencies.
So far, science cannot offer at least some model for the generation of such a wide spectrum of electromagnetic radiation of a quantum. **

This reasoning is also confirmed by experience. The most obvious thing is umformers - frequency converters. If such umformers are put on one shaft and rotated by some force, then at their outputs you can get the same voltage, but with different frequency. And if the frequencies on the umformer differ by 5 times, then we still will not get from them powers that differ by 5 times. From each umformer it will be possible to get maximum power, approximately equal to the power of the motor rotating the shaft. Or easier. The engine revolutions of a tractor with a capacity of 100 forces are equal to 1500 rpm, and the engine revolutions of a passenger car are equal to 6000 rpm, but this does not mean that the power of a passenger car is equal to 400 forces.

If we proceed from the fact that the concept of a quantum of energy was introduced by Planck from experiments on the radiation of an absolutely black body, then it should be recognized that a quantum is an electromagnetic wave, which is an interconnected combination of an electric field of two polarities and a magnetic field of two polarities. All this is true, but further questions arose: how do these elements make up a certain structure and how they move. It was assumed that these substrates, overflowing from one type to another, move in space. If at some moment, for example, an electric field is ahead, then it begins to induce a magnetic field in the form of a vortex. We can say that in front of the electric field a magnetic cloud grows along a sinusoid, approximately in the form of a ball. This vortex takes up a certain part of the space. Then this vortex, from some place of its formation, begins to induce an electric vortex of the opposite sign, etc.

This type of movement was proposed by Maxwell. Knowing the experiments of Faraday and Ampere, he suggested that the electromagnetic substance propagates in a wave. And he described all this well with his famous equations. Only as it seems to the author in these equations, or rather the conclusions obtained from them, there was one small flaw.

At that time, all experiments were carried out with charges and currents in conductors. The potential was located around the charge, the magnetic field acted in concentric circles around the conductor with current. This probably gave Maxwell the opportunity to assume that the electromagnetic wave propagates from the wave generator in the form of a sphere or circle, like waves on water from a thrown stone. After we realized that an electromagnetic quantum is emitted and absorbed in portions, new problems arose.

Suppose a quantum was emitted in the form of a sphere, and it can be absorbed by some other object. We have a quantum in the form of a sphere, inside a sphere, suppose an electron that emitted this quantum, and somewhere on the sphere an electron appeared, trying to absorb this photon. This means that the absorbing electron must pull towards itself the entire electromagnetic component of the quantum. Just as a punctured balloon contracts, only it contracts not at the puncture site, but, ideally, from the opposite side. Scientists called this “collapse” of the wave function reduction, and the matter with the quantum, as it were, cleared up. Nobody even thought about Walter Ritz's theory. It was enough that around a candle, fire or any other source of light or heat, photons spread evenly over the sphere and along the radius. It seemed hardly possible to represent such propagation in the form of discrete particles, but a wave is a completely different matter. Few people were embarrassed by the fact that the light penetrating the slit of the shutter spreads as a beam, the light from the flashlight also spreads in the form of a beam. Can this be represented in the form of fragments of a sphere or in the form of a sphere compressed by a reflector or a slit? Part of the sphere cannot be, for it will not be a quantum, but something else or another quantum. If objects deform a quantum, then it is difficult to describe its manifestations.

Many have probably noticed that when you look at the cracked glass on which sunlight falls, you see the rays of light reflected by this crack. The rays propagate directly and are chaotically broken lines. They look like flying small needles of various lengths.

This propagation of light is more like the movement of discrete particles than the propagation of a wave. Undoubtedly, the motion of discrete particles can be organized in the form of wave motion, which will be discussed below. Now we will proceed from the fact that a quantum particle is a particle of electromagnetic radiation.

Schematically, a quantum, let's call it electromagnetic negative, can be depicted approximately in this form (Fig. 2.).

These four beads-vortices (negative-electric, negative-magnetic, positive-electric and positive-magnetic) are a single minimal electromagnetic energy quantum.

This portion cannot be reduced by throwing out at least one of its components - the quantum will die. It seems that these components cannot be changed proportionally. In a given environment, namely in a vacuum, it will either become unstable or lose its qualities. It is quite possible that the law of dialectical materialism is at work in this phenomenon - the transition of quantity into quality. Only this amount of energy, and only this, acquires the property of matter to move independently.

It can also be assumed that the electric-negative component of the quantum, due to the different orientation of the electron spin, can have one or another polarization. Such quanta will interact differently with electrons. An electron with one spin will absorb and emit quanta of a given orientation, and quanta of a different orientation will be indifferent to it. This is clearly manifested in such phenomena as chirality, the passage of light through polarizers.

A quantum can be not only an electromagnetic negative, but also an electromagnetic positive quantum, that is, it is organized so that its electrical-positive component (conventionally) will be in front or above, that is, it is with this potential that the quantum begins to interact with the outside world.

Approximately as in Fig. 2a.

Such a quantum can be generated not by an electron, but by a positron. The collection of such quanta is organized by a positron, which has a positive potential, since it is the positive component of the quantum that is on top of the particle.

When an electron and a positron come close, they are attracted to each other and unwind each other. Their fields, each of the vortices, interact with each other, and the following states can result.

If the vortex of an electric negative quantum (electron) will have a right orientation, the vortex of an electric positive quantum (positron) will have a left orientation, then the negative and positive vortices will be directed towards each other. In this case, the fields will destroy, or rather, compensate, each other, turning into a mass, which, with our knowledge, has no charge. We can say that vortices annihilate each other, simply speaking, quanta “burn”, therefore their internal energy is released. The ash of this “combustion” may not be a relativistic neutral, or rather, without a charge mass (in a neutral mass, the charges are compensated by each other or converted into this mass). This is the familiar annihilation. Is this the Higgs boson that is being searched for with a collider? Of course, the charges have not gone anywhere: they either turned into a mass, which one day we will learn to turn into charges back, or the charges have merged with such force that we cannot break them apart. Moreover, we still have zero knowledge about fields. If you want, extrapolate this phenomenon into a black hole, it is of this without a charge mass that it consists.

If a vortex of an electric negative quantum (electron) has a right orientation and a vortex of an electric positive quantum (positron) has a right orientation, then the negative and positive vortices will follow each other or move in parallel. The same is for the left orientation of quanta. In this case, quanta cannot decay into two separate quanta, since their constituent parts, say, “+” of one quantum is opposite “-” of another quantum (for each vortex), and they are attracted to each other. But they cannot merge into a single formation, since the speeds of their movement are equal. They move in phase, in contrast to the annihilation process, where vortices move in antiphase. Such quanta moving in parallel practically do not interact with each other, but they can fully interact with the outside world. But this interaction does not lead to anything, since any effect of one vortex on an external object is immediately compensated by the action of the opposite vortex. That is, such hidden pairs do not manifest themselves in any way.

It is possible that such hidden pairs make up the Dirac Sea or, in fact, latent or dark energy, which is the majority in the universe. There is no doubt that these pairs are formed under appropriate conditions and again under some conditions decay back into a pair of particles. These particles could be called virtual, but they are objectively existing particles.

In 1928, Dirac compiled an equation describing the motion of an electron and obtained two solutions. One with positive energy, which corresponded to an electron, and the second solution corresponded to a particle with negative energy. It was an antiparticle discovered by the American physicist Anderson in 1932 and named it a positron. Dirac even suggested that the physical vacuum is filled with this negative energy, which we do not notice, as for the time being, we do not notice air. It is difficult to agree with this, since elements with negative energy (positrons) will trap electrons and turn into mass (black hole). Latent vapors, on the other hand, may be dark matter.

Electric and magnetic vortices in a quantum can be composed in another way. There may be not electric, but magnetic vortices ahead.

The quanta can have a configuration with an external magnetic component (Fig. 2b and Fig. 2c).

Whether such quanta can condense into stable particles with one magnetic field at the top, we do not know, at least until such particles are found, but such quanta can combine into some quasi-stationary formations.

S. V. Adamenko and V. I. Vysotsky in their article "Experimental detection and modeling of the orientational motion of hypothetical magnetically charged particles on a multilayer surface." (Surface, 2006, No. 3, pp. 84-92.) write about a certain particle, which relatively easily gous through aluminum and moves in one direction in a magnetic field. This is very similar to a monopole.

Quants with an external magnetic component are generated quite simply. The fluxes of such quanta are called torsion fields. There are generators who know how to do this and there are people who know how to make such generators. Only people do not understand what they are doing, they are kicked for it by the rest, who do not understand anything in this phenomenon, and do not recognize their inventions. Such people include research engineer A. A. Shpilman, who develops designs of torsion generators.

The same constructions exist for A. E. Akimov and G. I. Shipov.

A lot of researchers irradiate everything and everyone with the radiation of such generators and observe what will come of it. But nothing supernatural is observed.

An indirect confirmation of the presence of such quanta can be the research of Yu. V. Ryabov [1] on the stability of beta decay of atomic nuclei, the same studies on beta decay were carried out by AG Parkhomov [2] and others. Each of them turned out that unknown radiation from space influenced the rate of decay of nuclei. Moreover, these influences were correlated with astronomical phenomena, that is, clearly something came from space and, although this radiation was screened by clouds, it passed through aluminum and glass.

Researchers of the Tomsk Polytechnic Institute S. G. Yekhanin, B. V. Okulov, G. S. Tsarapkin, V. I. Lunev [3] discovered the effect of a rapidly rotating body (gyromotor) on the Geiger counter, the shape of the distribution histogram is distorted count rate. And many other experimental experiments indicate the existence of an incomprehensible torsion field.

Perhaps this is so, but all these effects can be explained without involving the supernatural (Occam). We have electric and magnetic fields, so build constructions from them that confirm these phenomena. It's easier to build something from existing material than take that, I don't know what to build it. This can also explain the course of low-energy nuclear reactions. If several electron-positron pairs are annihilated at a hot spot, then the required energy will be obtained immediately.

Such quanta should be called magnetoelectric and not torsional. The field formed by magnetoelectric quanta easily penetrates through a substance with an electromagnetic field. And the field can be called magnetoelectric.

It is possible that there are 4 types of magnetoelectric quanta, taking into account polarization.

In general, from these eight types of forms of combining electric and magnetic fields, everything can be built, including living matter.

** It can also be assumed that no matter how the quantum is organized, it still contains the same amount of energy. **

In conclusion, we can say that:

** Quantum is a portion of electromagnetic energy, the magnitude of which is fixed and possibly equal to Planck's constant. **

Based on the formula ** E = hv **, we can assume that Max Planck, for some reason, made an exception for electromagnetic energy, associating it with frequency.
In other types of energy, nothing like this is observed.
If water is added to the reservoir, then the potential energy of all water will increase, but its other parameters will not change.
The number of water molecules will simply increase.
If you add another bucket of water falling from the same height to the bucket of water falling on the turbine blades, then the quality of the kinetic energy will be the same, nothing will increase its oscillation frequency.
The velocities and masses of the molecules will be the same all the time.
If you connect two volumes of the same vapor (pressure, temperature), then the vibration frequency of the molecules will not change.
The same with atomic energy, and not just with two carts of firewood.
And why should the frequency of electromagnetic energy change if you add two identical pieces of it?
If quanta or photons have different frequencies, then they cannot do anything together.
A hundred people will not be able to swing a swing if they act on it with different frequencies.
The swing has one resonant frequency.
And to construct the morphology of living things at different frequencies of quanta is not even worth talking about.
No coherence can be achieved in this case.

Therefore, in Planck's formula it would be better to replace ** v ** with

How fields interact in a quantum and how a quantum moves is described in the article "Quantum of energy, how it works and how it moves.