Electric current. His physical essence

Electric current is probably the second most important phenomenon after fire that a person knows, but does not fully cognize it.

Electric current is light, television, radio, children's toys, flashlights, all kinds of generators and engines, heat ... Everywhere, current, like air, but it is not visible. We only observe his actions and pay for his actions. We know where this current is taken, how it is delivered to us, how much it is delivered to us and what quality it is.

The general definition of electric current is:

“Electric current is the directed movement of electrically charged particles, for example, under the influence of an electric field. Such particles can be: in conductors - electrons, in electrolytes - ions (cations and anions), in semiconductors - electrons and holes (electron-hole conductivity).
Electric current is widely used in power engineering to transmit energy at a distance ”
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This is almost everything that is known about the physical essence of electric current. Then there is only talk about the shape of the current, about the direction of the current, about quantitative parameters, about its application, etc. There are concepts about conduction current and displacement current, but no one really wants to explain what it is, and perhaps cannot.

Let's try to present the last position in more visual images.

When studying electric current, the method of comparing current with water is usually used. The voltage is represented as a water pressure, for example, in the form of a water column, the current is represented as the amount of water flowing in the pipe, the resistance is represented by the thickness of the pipe. The larger the internal section of the pipe, the less resistance it has to the flow of water, which means that more water flows through this section, that is, the greater the current. The higher the water tower, the more water flows through the pipe, the greater the current. This simple comparison is applicable to us.

Let's represent the system as a closed ring. Picture 1.

A pipe, in the form of a ring, filled with water, at the point A , a pump is installed in the pipe, with which you can pump water in the direction of the arrow. This will be an analogue of a current generator.

Let it be a hand pump, something like an auger, and it immediately lifts the entire column of water. Grab the handle and start turning it. While there was no water in the pipe, the pump rotated easily, and when the pipe was full, it becomes more difficult to turn the pump. According to Newton's second law, water resists the rotation of the pump, which is transferred to the hand. But now the resistance starts to weaken. The water picks up a certain speed equal to the speed of the pump blade in the direction of the arrow, and the water resistance becomes minimal. If all side forces disappeared, for example, friction in the pump, surface resistance of water, roughness of the pipe, etc., then the water would circulate by itself, and the pump would rotate without load. The water would not load the pump in any way, and the pump would not repair the water resistance.

In case of water braking in the zone а , the kinetic energy of the water in the zone b will force the water in the zone а flow at the same speed. But when you open the tap at point B , some of the water will leak out and in the zone b there will be less water and, therefore, less kinetic energy. Now, so that in the zone а the same amount of water flows and at the same rate, the decreasing energy of the water should be replaced by the operation of the pump. You can act differently. Add the appropriate amount of water under a certain pressure to point B . Then the water parameters in the zones а a and b will remain unchanged. You can add any other substance instead of water: kerosene, air, or whatever, just to create the same pressure at the point B as the pressure of the water column from the zone c .

This means that it is possible to organize the circulation of any substance in a given pipe, and if there is no loss of this substance and resistance to it, then the cycle can be repeated endlessly. Moreover, inside a substance, you can organize any cycles without leaving the substance. You can evaporate or freeze the water and then return everything back. Consequently, not matter, but energy is conserved in the cycle. A substance is simply a package of energy.

We know several forms of energy: potential, kinetic, electromagnetic, thermal, nuclear and others. But what is the content of these forms? Is it the same substrate or are they different substrates? That is, does the concept of energy have the same basis or for each form of energy its own basis? In this article we will try to understand the content of electromagnetic energy. Its form is an electric conduction current or a displacement current. Although everything seems to be clear about the substrate of these currents, conductivity is particles, and displacement is an electromagnetic wave, we will try to decipher these concepts in more detail.

Science claims that the movement of free electrons causes an electric current in conductors and vacuum. And also science claims that the speed of propagation of the current is equal to the speed of light, although the speed of the electron itself is equal to & sim; ~ 0.1-1 mm / sec. Hence, the following current model immediately arises. In order for the current from the Bratsk hydroelectric station to reach Moscow, the chain of electrons should be laid out in such a way that they touch each other and are absolutely inelastic. But in this case, the push of an electron at the power plant will instantly respond in Moscow, and not at the speed of light.

If you want the action to be transmitted at the speed of light, then you need to leave small, small gaps between the electrons, provided that the electrons are absolutely inelastic. If you do not like the cracks, then allow some elasticity of the electron. Make your choice, but keep in mind that in these options the speed of propagation of the action will depend on the magnitude of the push of the first electron, i.e. from stress. These are essentially short-range modes. Maybe someone has a different model of current propagation. We offer a long-range action mode. An example of long-range and short-range action: you can knock down (set in motion) an apple by throwing a stick at it (long-range action) or holding a stick in your hand (short-range action).

So and electron must "throw" into the next electron "something", and even such that it flew at the speed of light. The only “something” that can be thrown, i.e. emit, an electron is photon . Science does not yet know another object. Maybe he is not. But an electron cannot take something from somewhere, convert it into a photon and then emit it, except from an object that sets this electron in motion.

The first electron can be set in motion in any way, either by the contact of the electric field of one electron with another, or by the interaction of an electron with a photon. It should be noted that the interaction of an electron with a photon does not always lead to the emergence of electron motion in the direction of the photon motion. Sometimes this movement may not be at all, and sometimes there may be a movement towards the photon. ( gravity ).

And so, the first electron emits a photon, which propagates at the speed of light. Any free electron that meets on the path of a photon tries to absorb it, and it turns out into it, but the free electron cannot hold the photon. And the unchanged photon will be emitted by the electron. This is what Fizo experience and what is free an electron scatters a photon
.

As a result of such absorption / radiation, the electron will receive a momentum from the photon and give exactly the same momentum to the next photon. The electron will remain almost in the same place, and only in the scattering mode the electron can move a certain distance. The same phenomenon will occur with all electrons in the circuit from the generator to the consumer. From electron to electron, the current flows in the form of a displacement current. And it does not matter at what distances the electrons are located: almost nearby, as in wires, or at some distance, as in transformers, or at any distances, as between the antennas of the transmitter and receiver. In electrical circuits, there are many capacitors through which current passes, but an electron can pass through a capacitor only in case of its breakdown, that is, damage. Otherwise, a bias current flows through the capacitor.

Thus, we can say with confidence that the main carriers of energy are photons, and particles are translational points for the transmission of photons and generators of photons .

The propagation of current by photons confirms such a phenomenon as an increase in the transfer of energy with an increase in the voltage on the transmission line.
Let's take some line and load it. As long as the load is not large, a small current flows in the line and nothing unusual happens. But here we begin to increase the load (reduce the resistance of the circuit) without changing the voltage of the generator. We will soon see that the connecting line starts to heat up. The higher the load, the more the line heats up and, in the end, the line will burn out if the power of the current source is quite high.

What should be done so that the line does not burn out? Increase the thickness of the wires or replace them with wires of lower resistivity. Or increase the generator voltage by matching the load with the appropriate parameters. In the latter case, we can transfer more energy without changing the thickness or quality of the line. What happened in the latter case? Has the number of electrons in the wires increased? No, the wires are the same and there are the same number of free electrons. Maybe electrons are torn off the atoms of the substance of the wires? The same is not true, otherwise ions would appear in the conductor and it would be noticed. Then maybe the electrons ran faster in the conductor and no photons are needed? No way, otherwise the speed of propagation of electricity would depend on the voltage, and a scientist would immediately notice this, measure and deduce the mathematical dependence of the rate of transmission of energy on the magnitude of the voltage.

Surprisingly, the speed of propagation of an electrical signal is equal to the speed of propagation of light. In radio communication, this is generally obvious, taking into account, of course, the refractive indices, and in wires it is masked by the apparent proximity of electrons to us. Well, so maybe the electrons line up in a slender chain to push each other? As we saw above, this is unlikely. The heat movement will destroy the entire chain. More or less intelligible hypotheses do not come to mind, and therefore you have to turn to a photon (a set of quanta). Only the flux of photons is the current.

Therefore, the current can be represented in this way. In a generator in a power plant, there are two elements, a stator and a rotor that can rotate. There are conductors in the rotor and stator. If, for example, a current is passed in the stator, then a magnetic field will arise around it. And now if you twist the rotor, then the free electron, which is in the conductor, under the influence Kaufman forces will move along the conductor and, as a result, will emit a photon of a certain power. A photon with the speed of light, retransmitting on electrons coming in its path, will move to the consumer (this is the displacement current), and the electron will move a short distance (this is the conduction current).

In the next revolution of the rotor, this electron will move a little further along the conductor. When it goes beyond the Kaufman force, it will be pushed by the negative field of electrons, which will be driven by the Kaufman force. And so with all electrons, and our first electron in some time will be able to reach the consumer. But this time is much longer than the time it took for the photon to reach the consumer.

The conclusion is this: electrical conduction current is created by electrons or other charged particles, and the displacement current is created by photons . We can say that in any conductor, and not only in space, the main load on the transmission of electric current falls on the photons.

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