Eotvos experiment. Quantum theory

Actually, Eotvos has two such main experiments: one to measure the change in gravity (needed for geodesy) and the second to prove the proportionality of the force of gravitational attraction (gravity) and centrifugal force (a kind of inertial force).

Dicke R., describing the experiment of Eotvos, asks the question: “ ... will the plumb line maintain exactly the same direction, thereby revealing a strict proportionality between these two forces of completely different nature? ” Italics and drawing 2 is taken from the book by Nikolai Koltovy "Book-5-h11-04-Gravity and Ether".

The schematic diagram of the Eotvos experiment is very simple. Here is her picture 2.

You see the globe spinning. A rocker is suspended perpendicular to the meridians on a thin thread. At the ends of the rocker arms, weights of the same weight, but made of different materials, are suspended. Eotvos experimented with platinum, copper, water, wood, glass and other materials. A thread with a yoke and weights rotate parallel around the earth's axis. A yarn with a yoke is a torsion balance.

When rotating, as you know, a centrifugal force arises, which throws bodies off the axis of rotation. And this strength depends on body weight. It can be calculated using the following formula. More mass means more strength.

This means that if the mass of one ball is greater than the other, then, in theory, it will have to be thrown at a greater distance from the axis of rotation than the lighter ball. Forces 1 and 2 will not be equal and the rocker will turn around and twist the thread. A mirror is fixed at the bottom of the thread, and it will reflect a beam of light in a different direction. This is the offset of the "bunny" and will show if the thread is twisted.

And no matter what weights the baron hung up, the thread would not twist, period. Centrifugal force did not distinguish between the fact that the weights were made of different materials. Galileo faced the same problem. What he did not throw from the Leaning Tower of Pisa, everything flies at the same speed. Well, this cunning gravity does not react to material in any way. It would seem like this core, which a man hardly lifts, flies to the ground, in the same time as a wooden ball that a child lifts.

Strangely, two different, as Dicke writes, completely different forces, but behave the same. How so? Different scientists and non-scientists answer this question in their own way.

I want to propose an experiment that is almost impossible to fully implement in practice, but which can show something about the proportionality between two forces of a completely different nature.

Here you see a flat ring (Fig. 3 top view) with a rim along the outer circumference. This is such a not tall glass (side view) with a large hole in the bottom. The disc is horizontal. There are 4 pieces of horizontal spring scales and 4 pieces of vertical spring scales on the disk. Balls of the same weight are placed on horizontal scales (they were weighed on the same scales), but made of different materials. The balls are connected in the same way in pairs by a bar on which the mirror is fixed. Two pairs are required to balance the system. A light source is located strictly in the center of the rotation of the disk, which is directed to the mirror, a direct beam, then reflected from the mirror and hits the screen, which is also located on the axis of rotation. The light source and the screen are located at different levels.

That's all not a tricky device. And it works like this. If the elasticity of the springs of the vertical scales is the same, that is, the accuracy of the scales is the same, then the connecting rod will move in parallel for any equal compression of the springs, when the vertical scales will show the same value. In this case, the reflected beam can only move vertically across the screen. If the scales show different values, then this means that the bar has turned around its vertical axis and the reflected beam will move to the right or to the left relative to the axis of rotation. We mark the readings of all scales.

We spin the disk and look at the readings of the scales. Immediately I will say that in practice I did not produce this experience, so this is a mental experience and therefore all my assumptions will only be conceivable. With increasing disk revolutions, the vertical balance will show more and more centrifugal force. And this value will be greater than the force of gravity. This follows from the experience of rotating a bucket of water in a vertical plane. When the bucket is in an upside-down position, no water flows out of it. With a further increase in revolutions, the centrifugal force will increase and the force of gravity will decrease. And when the speed of the balls reaches the first cosmic speed (7.9 km/s), the horizontal scales will show zero weight (this is on the Earth, and on the Moon the cosmic speed is much less). At the same time, the vertical balance will display the centrifugal force values ??expressed by this formula. Figure 4.

And what does this have to do with the experience of Eotvos? The main thing here is not to fall for a trick from a child's problem: what is heavier than a pound of iron or a pound of feathers? You look at this drawing and it immediately seems: put a ball of lead on one scale, and a ball made of wood or, even worse, foam, on the other scales, so the bar will unfold so that it does not seem a little. But no. It just fell out of my memory that the weight of a ball of lead and a huge ball of foam are the same. Shrink this ball to the size of a lead ball and everything will fall into place. A spot of light on the screen can move vertically, but it will not leave this vertical. The vertical scales will display the same value.

And now let's see if it is possible to carry out the invented experiment. I do not know on what parallel the experiment was carried out by Eotvos, but I think that on a parallel of 36,000 kilometers it is possible. I chose this parallel to simplify calculations. Through painful calculations, I obtained the speed of movement of the Eotvos device, and, consequently, of the balls, equal to 417 m / sec. Is it possible to obtain such a speed of the balls in my experiment? I found the rotation speed of the GUA-6 gyroscope on the network. It is equal to 36,000 revolutions per minute or 600 revolutions per second. What is the diameter of the rotor of this gyroscope, I do not know, well, I think not big. Let's say 6 centimeters. Then the circumference will turn out to be 20 centimeters or 0.2 meters. The speed of the circle will be approximately 120 m / s. As you can see, it is not so easy to set up a fictional experiment. It is partly difficult to get high rotational speed because of this formula. Figure 4. You see, the smaller the radius of rotation and the higher the speed of rotation, the greater the centrifugal force, which literally tears apart rotating objects. In addition, friction and other forces interfere with the increase in rpm. It is necessary to find a compromise with the size of the object, its material and rotation speed.

Maybe someone will set up this experiment, if there is any need, I don't know. Now it is important for me to understand what proportionality did Dicke write about? What is this proportionality? I understand proportionality, since proportionality was taught at school, using the example of triangles. In relation to forces, proportionality can also be found in our experience, only the opposite. We increase the speed of rotation of the disk with a certain radius: the centrifugal force increases, and the gravitational force decreases. This is inverse proportion. At the first cosmic speed, the force of gravity disappears altogether, and the centrifugal force reaches its maximum and that's it? No, with an increase in revolutions, the centrifugal forces will still increase and there is no proportionality.

Then maybe the proportionality between these two forces is observed with a change in the radius of rotation at constant disk speed?

These are the forces: gravitational and centrifugal. See, one decreases inversely to the square of the radius, and the other increases linearly with respect to the radius. But this also has little resemblance to proportionality in a triangle. Why is there no proportionality in my example, but in the Eotvos experiment?

Maybe proportionality is implied at constant speed and constant radius? Perhaps. Then show what it is. The fact that the rocker arm does not turn with balls made of different materials is only a manifestation of this proportionality, but it does not reveal the essence of this proportionality. Unfortunately, it is impossible to reveal this essence at the molecular-atomic level. It becomes understandable at the quantum level.

Centrifugal Force is the antipode of centripetal force. If there is no centripetal force, there is no centrifugal force either. The source of centripetal force is in our case gravity , that is, flow photons , called gravitons, corresponding to the energy. These gravitons through the inertial property of matter (to maintain a constant direction of motion) and form a centrifugal force. This force cannot be taken by itself or from some source. In my experiment, this force is also derived from the centripetal force generated by the rim. It is he who pushes the balls to the center. It turns out that a certain amount of gravitational forces (gravitons) generates a certain amount of inertial forces (also photons of the corresponding energy, I call them inertial), and the latter partially represent the centrifugal force. This is the proportionality of these forces.

The following can be drawn from this simple reasoning. Dicke's assertion that there is “ strict proportionality ” I consider to be true for gravitational action, but in my case proportionality is not observed. Why is that? The answer is simple from a quantum point of view. In my case, the centrifugal force is generated by the pressure of the rim on the balls, that is, as a result short-range , and in the case of gravity, centrifugal force is formed as a result of long-range action. I understand short-range and long-range action in the following way: I took a stick in my hand and knocked an apple off a branch - this is short-range (there is no time gap in the interaction), but if I threw a stick and knocked down an apple, this is long-range (the time of throwing a stick and knocking the apple down torn apart in time).

Thus, the rim has the ability to generate any force regardless of gravity. While the arriving graviton can generate only one inertial photon, and it is, to some extent, proportional to the arriving graviton. We can say that in my case “ forces of different nature ” are acting, while in Eotvos's experiment there are “forces of the same nature”

It just so happened that in nature there are, in the opinion of the scientific community (note the erroneous one), only four interactions: electromagnetic, strong, weak and gravitational. What interactions are carried out in the Eotvos experience? Strong (nuclear), weak (beta decay)? Obviously not. There are two left: gravitational and electromagnetic. That's right, only the graviton has electromagnetic properties. This is an ordinary photon corresponding to the energy. In conclusion, I confess. A little higher I suggested that in my experiment the same effect should be observed as in the experiment of Eotvos: the thread should not twist. I'm not really sure about that. It is possible that the centrifugal forces generated by the pressure of the rim, in contrast to the forces generated by gravity, will somehow feel the difference in materials, and the connecting rod will twist in my case. This can happen even if the compressed foam ball is covered with the material from which the other ball is made. Only experience can dispel these doubts.

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