Kaufman's experience. How Kaufman's forces work in nature.

The results of Kaufman's experiment do not allow physicists to live in peace until today. Everyone interprets these results in their own way, confirming this with powerful mathematical calculations.

Kaufman's experience is schematically very simple (Fig. 1). The source of radiation of particles, in particular electrons, two electrodes in the form of plates, to which a voltage is applied, a diaphragm and a screen.

The results are recorded on the screen. The source emits electrons that pass through a hole in the diaphragm and light up the film on the screen. If there is no voltage on the plates, and there is no magnetic field, then the electrons fall on the screen at the point О . If voltage and magnetic field are applied to the plates, then the electron beam changes its trajectory and hits the point А .

And for more than a century, the best minds have been trying to describe this phenomenon with mathematical symbols. They are not interested in the rejection process. To the question: why is the beam deflected? their answer is simple: because there are magnetic and electric fields. At the expense of the electric field, they will say that a positive potential attracts a negative electron, and a negative potential repels an electron, which is why it flies along a curve. What physical processes occur during attraction or repulsion are usually not considered. Even incredible models are not observed in the phenomenon of the curvature of the trajectory of an electron under the influence of a magnetic field.

Science, based on physical parameters: the magnitude of the electric field U , the magnitude of the magnetic field strength B , the charge and the mass of the electron, the speed of the electron, the linear dimensions of the installation elements and their locations, and more, tries to describe the behavior of the electron. And to describe it so that for any given data it would be possible to say that the electron will deviate exactly to this point. And if I change this parameter so and so, then the deviation will be so and so.

Unfortunately, no theories give an accurate description of the phenomena that are observed in the results obtained when measuring the processes in these phenomena. According to the calculations of the theory, this should turn out, but it turns out somewhat different. This is what Kaufman faced first. According to Kaufman's calculations, the electron should have deviated by a certain amount, and the experiment recorded a smaller deviation. It turned out as if the electron had a greater mass than that which it possessed at rest.

In the Kaufman installation, the particle generator was radium bromide, which emitted not only electrons, but also alpha particles, which are much more massive than electrons. These particles almost did not deviate from the axis of motion at all. The electric and magnetic fields lacked the strength to significantly deflect these particles. This made the experimenter assume that the mass of the electron is somehow increasing.

But classical non-relativistic physics stood to death for the invariability of mass. With what fright did the mass suddenly begin to increase? Then quantum mechanics arrived and said that the mass of an electron depends on its speed, and how it depends, is shown by the Lorentz transformations. However, even in this case, the coincidence of theory and experiment is not fully obtained. Some researchers who believe in an increase in mass are trying to find errors in the experiment, others who observe the constancy of mass are trying to come up with a new theory. Naturally, neither those nor the others succeed and will not be able to see it.

Another look at the phenomenon obtained in the experience of Kaufman was offered by Walter Ritz. This view did not solve the problem in full, but it was able to indicate the right direction for solving this problem. But, as is often the case, they did not pay attention to it, and Ritz did not pay attention to others.

Ritz was drawn to this position by his fan Sergei Semikov. He told about this in the article “Relativistic effect of mass change” of his work “S. A. Semikov ballistic theory of Ritz and the picture of the universe ":

“After all, the deviations, measured by the trace left by the electron beam on the luminescent screen, give the value of the acceleration a, associated according to Newton's second law a = F / m with the electron mass m. But it turned out that for electrons flying at different speeds, the accelerations a are different: the higher the speed, the less they are. And, since, following Maxwell's electrodynamics, it was believed that the force F acting on an electron does not depend on its speed, they came to the absurd conclusion that as the electron accelerates, its mass m grows. But, after all, it is much more natural to assume that the mass is constant, but the force F is changing ”.

This is essentially a correct guess if Ritz could explain the more acceptable change in force F .

Theoretically, the trace of an electron beam on the screen should have had the shape of a parabola with the equation y = kx 2 Em / H 2 , where k is some constant, E and H are the strengths of the electric and magnetic fields, and m is the mass of the electron. The observed curve differed from this parabola as if with increasing velocity the mass m increased proportionally (1 + v 2 / 2c 2 ). But after all, as it was found out, in almost the same way, proportionally (1 + v 2 / 3c 2 ) the electric force and the field E increase with the speed of the charge. Taking into account the variability of E at constant mass will introduce into the parabola equation almost the same changes as taking into account the variability of m at constant E. The difference in the coefficients (one and a half times) is eliminated by a more accurate calculation presented in the work of Ritz [8] .

As you can see, the same thing happened with a good idea. Rejecting the idea of increasing mass with increasing speed, Ritz immediately proposed the idea of increasing the E field. Moreover, E is an external field.

But the matter is very simple. Einstein, and Ritz, and all others, except for a few marginals, know that the accelerated electron radiates. Einstein believes that these are photons, Ritz believes that these are particles that transfer energy (renons - by Semikov's definition), others believe that these are waves, etc. But it is believed - radiated and be healthy. No consequences, no conclusions, no questions. We are busy with our calculations and we do not care about this. Moreover, calculations show that these are very small particles. Semikov calculated, or maybe borrowed from Feynman, that there are about 10 42 pieces of them in an electron. There are the same number of quanta in an electron, but they can be blocked into photons of any energy. In annihilation, an electron and a positron are completely turned into photons.

In general, it is logical to assume that as soon as the electron emitted something, then this something became less in the electron. We do not take into account the reasoning of the ethers that the electron does not emit anything, but compresses something and it spreads. The electron has nowhere to take what it is radiates except from itself. And it radiates from itself electromagnetic energy, or if someone is not too lazy to think - a piece of mass with a corresponding charge.

As a result, we get that after acceleration there is less charge and mass in the electron. And now it is only worth counting which decreases faster - mass or charge. If the charge, or rather its effective cross section, interacting with an external force, decreases faster than the mass, then the mass relative to the force will increase with the speed of the electron. The absolute mass of the electron will decrease and at the speed of light can evaporate altogether. This is what Kaufman observed. Perhaps someone will carry out calculations and confirm or destroy this model of the behavior of an electron in an electric and magnetic field.

But how does a magnetic field change the trajectory of an electron? We will proceed from the fact that the electron has a magnetic moment - spin. From this, it can be assumed that there are some magnetic vortices on the surface of the electron, and they, as part of the electromagnetic wave, move along the surface electron . So far, no one has proposed a more or less acceptable model of the electron device, we will assume that a continuous chain of quanta moves along the surface of the electron, part of which breaks down by an external force in the form of photons. It turns out a kind of top with a magnetic and electric field. The magnetic component can interact with an external magnetic field, approximately as shown in Figure 2.

We'll have to assume that the magnetic field is not uniform in components. It has a certain gradient in the magnitude of the tension. In one direction, the positive component decreases, and the negative component increases, and in the opposite direction, the opposite is true. If an electron enters such a field with a certain velocity V , then due to rotation along the arrow а its magnetic component , he will receive an additional component of the speed v . As a result, it will change its initial speed to the speed Vр , and will move along some kind of curve, since this speed will be continuously adjusted, possibly , to a parabola.

But another version can be presented - why the magnetic field bends the trajectory of a moving electron. The movement of an electron is a current, and it is known to generate a magnetic field, which, interacting with an external field, bends the trajectory of the electron.

Be that as it may, but the fact that the magnetic field changes the trajectory of a charged particle is a fact. The forces that change this trajectory I call the Kaufman forces. This phenomenon is used by mankind very widely in cathode ray tubes. And in nature this phenomenon is used everywhere. Without these forces, the condensation of energy into particles, for example, into an electron, is not possible. Synthesis is not possible atoms , as the electron will immediately fall on the nucleus. These are the wonderful things that Kaufman's powers do.

     Index         to section      up