Quantum computer problems and their solution

From the end ⅩⅨ and start ⅩⅩ centuries, scientists have been trying to build a quantum computer without fully understanding what a quantum bit is. The so-called qubit.

All types of memory, from a trigger built on lamps to the smallest microcircuit, have one required element: a capacitor, otherwise capacity. So, this very capacity stores information, that is, bit - 0 or 1. How does this happen? A certain amount of electrons accumulates in the container, creating a certain potential. If a potential of a certain value is present, then we say that the memory cell stores 1. If there is no potential or it is not of the proper magnitude, then we say that the cell stores 0. The magnitude of the potential depends on the number of electrons in this container, just as the amount of water in a glass depends on the number of water molecules in it.

Modern technology makes it possible to manufacture containers with sizes up to 10 -13 mm, and maybe even smaller. This means that hundreds or even tens of thousands of electrons can be stored in these containers. All, by reducing and decreasing the cutting (the containers are somehow cut out on plates from the appropriate material or, on the contrary, the corresponding substances are sprayed onto the substrates), we can reach the size of the container that stores only one electron. Then if there is one electron in the container, then this is 1, if there is no electron, then this is 0. In modern types of memory, hundreds, or perhaps tens of thousands of electrons are stored on a container.

Further, you can absolutely minimize memory only by reducing the size of the electron, which cannot be done for objective reasons, but you can minimize it relatively, that is, increase the size of the memory by several percent, and increase its capacity by a larger percentage. To do this, the electrons should be numbered or somehow marked, then two electrons in one capacity will quadruple the memory, and its size will only double. Three numbered electrons will triple the memory size, and the memory capacity will increase eightfold, and so on. Thus, we increase the amount of memory, but still the size of memory grows, although not at the same rate as the amount of memory.

The desire to reduce the size of memory and other computer nodes is dictated not only by the need to reduce the size of the device and, accordingly, reduce its material consumption. The main motive for minimizing a computer is its speed. The shorter the signal propagation paths, the lower their inductance and capacitance, and, therefore, the faster the computer works.

In addition to minimizing the size, scientists rushed along various other ways to increase the power of computers. Some people try to increase the speed of propagation of signals in the computer. Probably, it is believed that the signals are carried by electrons and therefore they are trying to increase the speed of the electrons. Others are trying to connect teleportation to increase the signal transmission rate. In this case, signals will be transmitted instantly. Other versions are also possible. But so far there are no visible achievements in these areas.

But the computing power of a computer depends not only on the speed of signal propagation, but also on the basis with which the computer works. Almost all our computers work with a binary number system. One memory cell can store only two values: 0 or 1. In a ternary system, one cell can store three values: 0, 1, and 2. In the decimal system, ten values, etc. The computer runs faster in the decimal system than in the binary system. When adding numbers, until the addition of the least significant bit occurs, the next bit must wait for the result of the addition. The longer the operands, the longer the wait time. Of course, this can be minimized to some extent, for example, by building on the transfer summation floors or some other tricks. But there is a limit to everything and, of course, the same tricks can be used in all computers. And within the base there are no transfers at all. In the decimal system, the operation three plus three will be performed in one clock cycle, while in the binary system, this operation will take two clock cycles.

The electron stores 10 41 quanta , of which are formed when emitted photons of different energies: from one quantum (neutrino) to a photon containing all 10 41 quanta ... The latter occurs during annihilation. In this process, the electron completely unfolds from a particle into an electromagnetic form. Theoretically, a quantum computer could have such a foundation.

In fact, even our brain, which works with photons, does not work with the entire spectrum of these photons. The photons that the human brain works with are within the hump of the blackbody radiation curve. But even within these limits, the spectrum width is very large. For example, you find a dollar. Firstly, it will be remembered for a while and, perhaps, will bring at least a little joy. Found a hundred dollars - more joy. We won ten thousand - you can dance, etc. Each degree of joy has a corresponding quantum state of the brain . Every dollar makes a change in the “good” state, although sometimes we may not feel it. This can be seen in the following example. Suppose there is a desperate need for some $ 1001 drug. A person possesses only 1000 dollars, and he cannot buy this medicine and it is difficult to get the necessary dollar. But when he does find that dollar, the energy state of the brain changes in a sensitive way.

The quantum state of the brain also changes in the direction of "bad". The loss of one dollar may go unnoticed. Lost ten dollars can cause mild annoyance if they were not included in the purchase price of the above medicine. The stolen thousand can disrupt the family budget, etc.

This amount of lost and acquired dollars is approximately the basis with which our brain works. It is possible that the loss of one dollar will excite such an energetic state of the brain as the loss of a billion dollars in another situation.

All these are theoretical premises that eminent scientists will not pay attention to, and alternative scholars will completely reject.

Let's try to find at least some path, which, according to the author, must be followed in order to build a quantum computer. There are very few materials on the practical plan for building a quantum computer. Indeed, how to apply in practice the crossed hybrids of particles and photons or the phenomenon of teleportation in the construction of a computer. This is a pretty tricky problem. Building qubits on atoms , as the developers from Simon Fraser University (Canada) suggest, looks even theoretically incomprehensible. It seems unusual and parallel processing of electron states in the atom, proposed by John Martinez. It looks like the construction of qubits on Jeffson Transitions will not solve the problem of a quantum computer. With an ordinary photon, everything looks a little simpler.

As we saw above, in our ordinary computers, the physical carrier of information is the electron, and the physical storage of this information is the physical capacity. In a quantum computer, a quantum of energy should be the physical carrier of information, and a electron should be the physical storage of this information. p>

Naturally, both the photon and the electron behave in a deterministic and unambiguous manner. An electron can be in any orbit in an atom. For him, there are no concepts of basic and excited states. It can only be in a stable or unstable state. And then these concepts are relative, but not absolute. If the state is not stable, then sooner or later the electron will let the exchange photon pass and move to the corresponding more stable level. Scientists from Canada excited an electron in their experiment to an unstable state lasting 39 minutes. And this electron did not double, did not triple, did not rush about atom , obeying the Schrodinger equation, and orbiting around the nucleus.

The photon behaves in the same way. It does not jump anywhere, but moves in a straight line until it encounters an electron or some other particle, only which can change the trajectory of the photon.

First, let's split the task into two stages.

1. Build a quantum computer with a binary base.

2. Build a quantum computer with an arbitrary base.

For a computer with a binary base, there are already some developments. To make the provisions of this material clearer, one should read the article by S. Arosh “Controlling photons in a box and studying the boundary between quantum and classical”. The article was published in the journal "Uspekhi fizicheskikh nauk" volume 184, # 10 October 2014. As you can see, the article is fresh.

When building a quantum computer with a binary base, you can use a photon of one energy. This is the first problem. Choose a photon that is easy to generate, that easily interacts with particles. Perhaps this is a photon from the top of the blackbody radiation curve. It is easy to obtain a series of such photons, but it is not yet clear how to separate one photon from this radiation. Next, you should select the appropriate atoms, with the elements of which our photon will interact. Here again the paths of construction are bifurcated. One of them can be seen in the practice of Arosh.

We type a number of photon boxes, for example, bytes. We inject photons into the corresponding discharges. There is a photon in the box - 1, otherwise - 0. Now the task is to count this information. This problem was partly solved by Arosh. For this, atoms must be passed through the boxes, which can change their state depending on whether there is a photon in the box or not. Naturally, not every atom can change its state under the influence of a given photon, so the so-called Rydberg atoms are chosen. These atoms are man-made, or rather their man-made state. The required atom is selected (Arosh speaks of rubidium) and, by treating it with a certain radiation, they transfer it to a state close to ionization. This is almost the same thing that scientists from Canada did by irradiating a phosphorus atom. In the photon box, an atom is ionized. The detector detects this atom, and we conclude that such and such a box contained 1, that is, there was a photon. So we count the entire byte. Of course, in practice, all this is more complicated than in theory, but you can still work on something. True, these are not yet the elements of a quantum computer. In fact, the photon box is almost the same capacitor as in an ordinary computer. We just replaced the electron with a photon.

Another way of building a fully quantum computer is also possible. For this it is necessary to collect a chain of atoms from which Rydberg states are prepared. The same byte. If the byte bit must contain 1, the excitation system of this bit is started and the atom goes into the Rydberg state. Now we can send a photon through the entire byte, and we will find excited atoms. Theoretically and practically, a photon can be relayed many times without harming itself. This is what Arosh shows. In his case, a photon affects an atom which, in his opinion, is in a superposition, where the Heisenberg uncertainty principle does not lead to a critical situation of destruction of something. This becomes clearer if you look at the articles. "Spontaneous emission" and "Induced emission" .

But there are complications along the way. How to direct a photon from atom to atom byte? In theory, this problem is solved by sputtering atoms, taking into account the refractive index of these atoms. Two refractive media are formed. (cm. "Dispersion of light in quantum representation" ). That is, to form the corresponding light guides. In technology, this is, for example, optical fiber, but in nature, these are nerves from the protein meelin.

Next, we need to solve the problem of fixing the state of byte atoms. There are two possible ways to solve it.

1. It is possible, as suggested in the article by S. Arosh, to fix the ionization of Rydberg atoms.

2. Try to register a photon or an electron knocked out of an atom, the loss of which led to ionization.

The knocked-out photon can be processed in the same way as in the widely studied photoelectric effect. And the knocked-out photon is an exchange photon, and you can work with it as with a photon of a maser or a laser. At first glance, the laser option is easier. On some substrate, as mentioned above, lay out a byte chain of atoms and against each atom you can try to spray microcavities if we need to bring these data to the macrolevel. If these photons, as read information, must be processed, then the channels of photon propagation should be laid up to the registers of the calculator. This can also be done by relying on the dispersion process.

The calculator was automatically created by nature. It's still the same electron. We select the required atom and bring communication channels to it from two registers. The sum of the two photons will be fixed in the new state of the electron. Since we are designing a computer with a binary base, the exchange photons read from the registers should be such that one by one they transfer the adder electron to the Rydberg state, and the electron of this atom should not feel the sum of photons. For this, there must be another atom that will fix this amount by its Rydberg state. This is the algorithm of a conventional calculator, we just replaced the capacitor with an electron, and we replaced the electron with a photon. But this is not enough to understand the difference between the work of conventional and quantum computers.

We know that all other math operators in a conventional computer boil down to the addition operator. And this is no coincidence. This happens because objectively, other operators simply do not exist in nature. Even subtraction comes down to addition. In a conventional computer, the operand to be subtracted is converted into a complementary or inverse code and then added to the operand from which it is subtracted. To invert the operand in a conventional computer, there are corresponding elements. In nature, too, there are both positive (conditionally) numbers and negative ones. These are the left and right orientations of the photons. The impact of such opposites on the electron will transfer it to a state corresponding to the difference in the energies of the photons, that is, subtraction will occur.

And here we have to solve the problem of inverting photons. For this purpose, in nature (or rather it happened in nature) there is a phenomenon of chirality. We have encountered it (a headache for scientists trying to synthesize living DNA) in molecular biology. Our brain works with both photon polarizations. We see objects in any light. The presence of chiral amino acids indirectly indicates that protein chirality plays a role. Obviously, when creating a quantum computer, we will have to work with chirality one way or another.

After we learn how to work with one atom and one photon, it will be possible to take the next step in improving the quantum computer. Namely. It is necessary to learn how to set the atom not in one Rydberg state, but at the first step at least in two. So we pass on to the ternary number system. If we manage to get some kind of algorithm for such an installation, then it will be possible to extend this to higher calculus systems. At first, you can try to do it with different types of radiation. The presence of tunable lasers suggests that this is possible. Naturally, a complete solution to the problem of a quantum computer will occur when all installations are controlled by their own photon. In living nature and in ordinary computers, everything is done in this way. But this is a daunting task. Perhaps, in order to solve it, one should more carefully study the protein structures of the brain. This is where all the registers, calculators, memory and everything else are located.

And, finally, a fantastic dream in general. When we build such computers, they will, in fact, be neurons, and we will only have to build a broadband interface between all neurons. And this is nothing more than synapses and nerve wires. It is on both sides of the synaptic cleft that chemical reactions take place in neurotransmitters and receptors that generate and convert some types of photons into others and send them to the desired fibers.

Some scientists in experiments sometimes find the speed of propagation of particles in excess of the speed of 300,000 km / sec. From this it is concluded that the particles can propagate almost instantaneously. They call this process teleportation and hope that “After the creation of reliable methods of quantum teleportation, real prerequisites for the creation of quantum computing systems will arise” .

It seems that while building quantum computing systems it is possible to do without the phenomena of quantum teleportation. But it is still necessary to create these methods, and for this reason. Photons and quanta move independently with their natural speed. But if a prefabricated object moves at its own speed, then some of its elements move at a speed greater than the speed of the object. No matter how a person, a car, a rocket or whatever moves, there are elements in them that must exceed their speed. In humans, these are, for example, legs. When one leg is standing, the other moves at double speed. The highest point of a car wheel always moves at twice the speed of the entire car. The velocity of the particles of the outflowing gas from the rocket nozzle can generally be much greater than the velocity of the rocket. Exactly the same happens with a quantum. It consists of magnetic and electric fields. And despite the fact that the entire quantum moves at the speed of light, its constituent fields must move faster than the speed of light.

It is possible that the fixation of these fields in the experiments was taken for the speed of movement of a particle or photon. In principle, you can try to verify this experiment.

Undoubtedly, in order to start building a quantum computer, one should firmly forget about superposition, particle-wave dualism, as a nightmare of humanity. How they forgot about the rotation of the sun around the earth, about three whales, caloric, ether and other exotic things.

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