The quantum level of the physical essence of time

Nature has set a great task for humanity by the presence in it of such an element as time. And most importantly, this is a very insidious thing. Whether you are a beggar, whether you are a president, whether you are smart or stupid, rich or poor, it still flows and flows in you, bringing the end closer. And how you want to postpone this end - a lot of money, a young wife ... Sometimes, however, you really want to look even a little ahead. What is going to be there? How will it end? Unfortunately, life is not a collection of crossword puzzles, you cannot look at the last page. But one should not despair, learned people, will one day defeat this villain.

Moscow State University has the Moscow Society of Nature Experts ( web-institute for research of the nature of time ). They are, it is argued, now on their way to understanding the phenomenon of time: the construction of time in natural science. (Part 3. Methodology. Physics. Biology. Mathematics. System theory / Edited by AP Levich. - M .: Progress-Tradition, 2009 .-- 480 p. [updated on the site 10/05/2013]). When this path is mastered, it is not said, but many articles on this topic have been written.

We are all trying to figure out what to point to - this is the time. What is this physical phenomenon, changing which we could change time? It may seem strange, but we can change the speed of the passage of time, although we do not realize it. There is a physical phenomenon that we influence, as a result of which time changes. We do not need to look for it (its exact coordinates will be indicated somewhat below), for it is everywhere this wonderful physical phenomenon. We do not notice this, just as we do not notice the presence of air around us.

First, let's try to understand where time appears as an objective physical quantity and where it appears as imagination. Behind the phenomenon of imagination, no physical quantity is directly hidden, except for the human brain and, possibly, the brain of some living beings. If we remove these creatures, then the concepts of "earlier" and "later", "past-present-future" are immediately removed. This can be seen in such a simple example.

The chicken laid two eggs in the nest. Let's follow the fate of these testicles. By the way, a person also tries to link the concept of fate with the concept of time. So. Obviously, the hostess can remove both testicles and make scrambled eggs from them, which in most cases does. This is one of the options for the fate of possible chickens. Everyone can forget about these testicles, and they either dry out, or rot, or, under appropriate conditions, can even petrify. Both or any of them can be eaten by any animal. Both of these testicles, or one of them, can be preserved by some scientist and after a while, they can be placed under a brood hen or placed in an incubator. It may be that the hen that has laid these testicles will show maternal instinct and sit on the nest.

You can still give many options for the existence of this masonry in this world, but this is enough. Each of these options is part of the life path of the future chicken or rooster. We can say that this is the past or the future of these individuals.

And now tell me, is it possible to see at least some physical quantity that would certainly choose one or another fate for future organisms? There is no such physical phenomenon in nature. Neither energy, nor entropy, nor order, nor chaos, nor anything else can form the chicken's past directly.

Each of these life paths is presented to external adjustment in different ways. If the ferret ate the egg, then for nature there could be no other fate for the egg. This is the only and natural way of life for this egg. If nature extends this pattern to all chicken eggs, then there will simply be no hens. This means that the past for the chicken is just an imaginary phenomenon, and in no way a physical one. The same is true for the concept of "earlier" and "later". One egg can be eaten today, and the second tomorrow. One can be placed in the incubator today, and the other in a week, etc. That is, this concept is a purely human invention, and not a direct natural one. This uncertainty of prehistory alone does not make it possible to turn everything back. There is no such phenomenon or phenomena that, by changing them, it turns out so that the testicles change places.

The same situation with the future. Nature builds cells at its own pace, assembles them in the form of tissues, loads these cells with proteins and, in the end, changes the energy field of cells so that they can no longer replicate, and if they can replicate, then the distorted holographic field will not be able to start the transcription mode The body grows old and eventually dies. Both are observed in experience.

Nature, like a man, does not know how to mount something and then dismantle everything in the reverse order. There is a cup on the table, an awkward movement, and it lies broken on the floor. How can we return the cup to the past? Flashbacks like in a movie? What should be the frame rate? Here it is smashed on the floor, now assembled on the floor, now at table level and finally on the table. But this is a movie, and in reality it should be so. The scattered fragments of the cup should, under the influence of some forces, fly up to the place where the cup fell, fold into the cup, the photons that were emitted during the rupture of the elements of the cup should return back and organize bonds between the fragments of the cup. Further, gravity should raise the cup, move it along the table to the required place, to which at this time the thermal photons, emitted by friction of the cup on the table, should return. And if some fragment of the cup is knocked down, some kind of bacteria, then, in fairness, we must revive it and bring it back to its original form. But such actions can only take place in the anti-world or in fantasy stories.

In this process, we violate not only the laws of thermodynamics, but all other laws we know. The cup should gather, which will reduce the entropy, bounce, violating the law of gravitation, during friction, heat should be absorbed, not released, and the like. Probably, it is more expedient not to dream of returning to the past. And it is too early to dive into the future, as it is impossible to return from there.

Thus, we can say that the past, future, earlier, later are purely subjective concepts. If a person disappears and all this will not happen. Nature is eternal and it acts only now. Does the past affect the present? Yes. But it is the reason that affects, not the time. If I can't go to college because I didn't finish school, it doesn't matter when I didn't finish it, yesterday or a year ago. When an oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms are close, they form a water molecule yesterday, now, and tomorrow. Only for the reason that atoms have such properties. For atoms, the concepts of yesterday and tomorrow do not exist.

But then there is the concept of the present - how quickly we, atoms, can form a molecule. It is we who are absolutely autonomous, not dependent on anything. External conditions affected the atoms in some way, brought them together, if a catalyst is required, then it has already emitted the required photon, which has reached the required atom. That's it, now the atoms must absorb and emit the portions of energy relying on this reaction. The process went off without any external intervention.

At this point, you can try to give a definition of time. In the article "Time" (Chapter 5 Time and Distance) R. Feynman writes:

“Let's first analyze what we mean by the word time. What is it! It would be nice to find a suitable definition of "time". In Webster's Explanatory Dictionary, for example, "time" is defined as "period", and "period" itself is defined as "time." However, this definition is of little use. But the definition “time is what changes when nothing else changes” makes no more sense. Perhaps we should recognize the fact that time is one of the concepts that cannot be defined, and simply say that it is something we know: it is what separates two successive events! ”

Of course, determining the time using the same time is not serious. But to find “this is what is changing” or “this is something known to us” should be, since it is in reality. It is movement or amount of movement that represents the physical essence of time. Time is not a substrate, it is a process. We do not see in speed, acceleration, movement and other, some kind of substrate.

We know very well that while there is no water, there is no life. But there is no water until the process of formation of a covalent bond between atoms is over. A covalent bond will be formed only when the last photon of a certain energy is absorbed or emitted. As we know from the article "Photon" emission (generation) or absorption of a photon requires a certain number of movements of the electron, its substrate. While this action is taking place in the electron, everything in the world froze, and stands or moves by inertia evenly and rectilinearly. The clock is standing, the grass does not grow, even a stone falls without acceleration, the wind does not blow, the sun does not shine, etc., etc.

If there was an outside observer, he could see anything and a fast process and a long one, but we do not see anything, we are in suspended animation. This duration of the process of generation and absorption of a photon is the physical essence of time . As soon as the last photon in the process of water formation is emitted or absorbed, the next same procedure is launched with the same time and all this adds up to, say, 88 years of life. Unfortunately, for us, the increase in the duration of our life due to the absolute increase in time is currently not too great and, most importantly, it concerns everyone and everything.

In this article, we saw that the rate of generation and, accordingly, absorption of a photon depends on its energy or, in other words, on its length. And we saw that the greater the speed of the electron relative to the vacuum, the more energy it should emit and absorb photons. For this reason, as soon as an electron enters the IFR with a higher speed, it starts working with longer photons.

The process of generation and absorption is lengthening, and this we call time dilation . We are waiting for the photon to be born and further actions to begin. The higher the ISO speed, the more time slows down.

The relativistic relationship has a physical basis: the longer a photon is generated or absorbed, the longer the wait for the next event. Lorenz determined the duration of this waiting by the ratio:

, where the time in the system, which moves with the speed V .

Feynman defined this time in a moving system as “proper time”. He is partially correct when he writes in 11 Own time:

“There are, therefore, worldlines with zero length. If you allow yourself to express yourself somewhat figuratively and not quite strictly, then we can say that the light, in its movement, does not completely waste its time. From distant stars and galaxies to us, terrestrial observers, light travels for tens, hundreds and thousands of years. But this is only from our point of view. If some clever "observer" could ride a light beam, then he would cover these unimaginable distances instantly. ”

It is not known where these world lines exist, but indeed, at the speed of the "observer" close to the speed of light, all electrons that make up this "observer" can stretch the process of emission of photons, depending on the given speed, by tens of hundreds and thousands years. Until the photon is emitted, the “observer” will remain in a frozen state. From this point of view, everything is logical, but the fact is that the electron contains in itself, although a large, according to some sources, up to 10 41 , the number of particles of quanta, but not infinite. And this means that the mass of the electron with increasing speed, in the end, should evaporate, turning into the unfolded electromagnetic energy of photons. But the “observer” cannot consist of protons alone. It is necessary to understand what happens to protons at light speeds, then the picture with the "observer", and everyone else, will become clearer.

Here is another statement by Feynman from this article and see how the world line led him to some inaccuracies:

“We can say that every body tends to move in such a way that its own time flows the fastest. Figuratively speaking, every body strives to age as quickly as possible. Probably not all readers will like this physical law. How can you comfort them? You can advise: do not move by inertia, try to move faster! By adhering to this wise rule, you will surely save a few microseconds in your life ... ”

As you can see, according to the physicist, time slows down when accelerating (which is true), but not when moving by inertia (which is wrong). This means that time does not depend on speed, but this is not so, or rather, not quite so. In a faster IFR, moving uniformly and rectilinearly, that is, by inertia, time flows more slowly than in IFR with a lower speed. This means that we just need to move longer and the faster, the better, we will save more microseconds. Why did such a collision arise?

Indeed, the change in time deceleration occurs only when the generator is accelerating. As long as no force acts on the electron, it does not emit or absorb anything. But now a person is accelerating, whether by himself, in a car or whatever, all the electrons contained in him are accelerated and begin to emit photons (not at will, but according to the laws of nature). The person and all the electrons went to another speed zone, another ISO. Indeed, during this period, the generation time increased and increased and the time slowed down. When the force accelerating the person disappeared, he began to move by inertia, but with a different speed. And at a different speed, a different generation rate is observed. That is, the average speed of the object has risen and longer photons are generated around this average speed. And, now, in the human body, covalent and other bonds will be formed at a different speed, that is, the speed of time will change.

It is possible that a little confusion has occurred due to an unclear delineation of concepts: the process of slowing down and the process of the passage of time. When a person was accelerated, photons were generated, which created inertial forces, and, naturally, photons of a person's life support were also generated. Undoubtedly, the generation rate of both of them changed to the same extent. Then the generation of inertial photons was stopped, and the life support photons were generated, as before, only with a different time delay.

Are there any examples confirming the stated hypothesis about the change in time? Can we somehow confirm the slowing down of time? It turns out to be simple. Cooling down, lowering the temperature slows down the time. At first glance, this seems to be an incorrect assumption, but it is not. Indeed, we are accustomed to the fact that the lower the temperature, the slower the motion of atoms and molecules, which is quite true.

And we know from thermodynamics that heat is always transferred from a warmer body to a colder one. This is the law. Let's take some body and start cooling it down. How can us do that. The easiest way is to place the body in a container and start cooling the container itself. As soon as the container temperature drops below body temperature, thermal photons will flow from the body to the container. This means that the electrons of our body emit photons, which is possible only with an increase in their absolute speed. An increase in the absolute speed leads to an increase in the delay time, the decomposition of food in the refrigerator slows down. Recall that the absolute speed is understood within the vacuum, outside the vacuum it is not known what, maybe the vacuum itself is moving.

But why, when we cool the vessel, suddenly our body starts emitting photons? But this is already the prerogative of the thermal movement. One atom pushes another atom and one of them, or maybe both, will emit a photon and move to the next more high-speed energy level. The electrons will "squeeze" closer to the nucleus and the body will reduced in size At this moment, if the temperature of the vessel allows to generate a photon equivalent to the emitted photon, then this electron will absorb this photon and everything will return to the previous situation. This is an equilibrium state.

If the temperature of the vessel is lower than the temperature of the body, then such a photon cannot be emitted by the wall, and the temperature of our body will drop. The speed of our electron will increase and increase, and it will get closer and closer to the nucleus, losing its charge. The loss of charge leads to the fact that the atoms begin to push less and less and, finally, a Bose-Einstein condensate , and how it will end in the limit is not clear.

In helium atoms, electrons are pressed very close to the nucleus. There are only two of them, they do not interfere with each other or interfere to a lesser extent than, say, in nitrogen. Therefore, helium can be cooled to a lower temperature than nitrogen.

The conclusion from what has been said is this - let's move longer and faster - save a few microseconds of life.

     Index         to section       up