Jung's experience from a quantum perspective

Jung, digging two small holes in a screen impenetrable to light, set a problem for science that has not been solvable until now. The best minds of world science (Feynman, Penrose and many other our and not our pillars) will not understand in any way why particles and waves behave so inconsistently when passing through these two ill-fated Jung's holes. Unfortunately, within the framework of the atomic level of cognition, it is generally impossible to understand this, no matter how much you fight. We need to go to the quantum level, 20 orders of magnitude lower.

And the experience is kind of simple. Well, you can't compare it with a collider. We have to state:

A mysterious experiment in the field of quantum physics, the results of which modern science cannot explain.

Some kind of trouble.

Here is a classic experiment scheme. Figure 1.

S - a light source (for Jung, this is normal sunlight),

A - aperture with a hole (for Jung, this is a window shade with a small hole),

B - opaque plate with holes,

S1 and S2 are small holes or slots in the plate,

Э - screen.

And then miracles begin. When only one slit is open, one light strip is visible on the screen. By opening the second slit, we hope to get a second light streak. But it was not there. Instead of two stripes, we see three or even more stripes. There are five of them in the figure. It all depends on the quality of the experience. Moreover, it turns out that the distance between the humps of the irradiance curve Δx is different for different colors.

Moreover, the middle light strip sometimes turns out to be right between the holes, where light, according to the logic of things, should not enter at all. And he falls. Jung realized that light has a wave structure, and the waves from the two slits create an interference picture on the screen. More or less like this:



Roger Penrose, in his book "The emperor's new mind" , also drew about the same picture. Figure 6.7.

As you can see, he has a wave in front of two slits, which is divided by the slits into two smaller waves, which create an interference picture on the screen. In one place the vibrations are mutually suppressed, and in another they are mutually reinforced.

And about this picture, he expressed such thoughts.

There is nothing mysterious about the behavior of an ordinary macroscopic classical wave passing simultaneously through two slits. Ultimately, a wave is just a “disturbance” of either some continuous medium (field) or some substance consisting of a myriad of tiny point particles .

I wonder what fields Penrose means? I think that apart from magnetic, electric, electromagnetic, gravitational and, perhaps, torsion fields, we will not be able to find anything. Maybe he wants to return to ether or some special vacuum? Which one was in Jung's room? Did these fields interfere in his experiments? Looks like no.

But the last thought about a substance consisting of a myriad of tiny point particles is almost true if we understand this substance as light, and not some intermediate medium. Penrose did not take this path, possibly due to his ignorance of the emission theory of Walter Ritz. Or perhaps because of a misunderstanding of what is photon . For further it says:

But in the corpuscular picture the situation is different: each individual photon behaves by itself like a wave! For if the total light intensity is significantly reduced, then it can be guaranteed that there will be no more than one photon at a time near the slits .

And one photon is that a particle that behaves like a wave? What is some kind of particle flying at the speed of light and constantly swelling like a ball? Moreover, the surface of this ball should vibrate with the appropriate frequency. Or does the particle fly to the slits without showing its wave properties? And when and under what conditions will it suddenly discover that it needs to turn to a plane wave? Almost a ball with an infinite radius. Some kind of nonsense.

In fact, the photon is that substance, as Penrose writes, consisting of a myriad of tiny point particles, that is, single elementary photons. Naturally, we cannot measure elementary photons. This is a super task for humanity. Of course, an elementary photon cannot create an interference picture either. These are compact vortices that do not have the property of increasing or transforming into some kind of sinusoidal form.

Penrose is right when he compares the size of the photon to the size of the slit and the distance between the slits. He writes:

If we take its wavelength as the “size” of a photon, then on the photon scale the second slit is located at a distance of about 300 “photon sizes” from the first (and the width of each slit is about two photon wavelengths) .

A photon cannot contact two slits at the same time, and therefore Penrose has a question:

How does a photon, passing through one of the slits, “learn” whether another slit is open or closed?

And further:

In fact, in principle, there is no limit to the distance by which the slits can be spaced in order for the phenomenon of "damping or amplification" to occur .

But this is not the case. The length of the photon in this case does not matter. Elementary photons, and not the whole photon, enter the slot. How a photon is generated. Increase the filament of the light bulb a lot.

When voltage is applied to a conductor, electrons will start moving and emit photons, which will fly in the same order into space. If, for example, an electron а detains a photon alone, then photon 1 will be delayed, but the cross section of the photon, that is, the Poyting vector, will remain the same. This is the thickness of the photon. Of course, this is a perfect picture of the emission of a photon. In fact, photons will be radiated in all directions from the conductor. The shape of the conductor, and the thermal movement, and reflections, and refractions, and the like are to blame for this. The radiation pattern will be spherical. We see this in practice.

The only thing that, unfortunately, we do not see is that this ball will be hollow. As long as the voltage U will increase, photons will be emitted until then. As soon as the voltage changes sign, the acceleration will stop, the electrons will move by inertia and will not emit anything. This layer of photons, let's assume it is spherical, will go on a journey from the emitter. It will fly away some distance from the source and there will be nothing behind it until the electrons in the conductor are slowed down by reverse voltage and are loaded with new photons. Then the voltage will change sign again and begin to accelerate the electrons, and they again emit a new wave of photons. The distance between these portions of energy is the radiation wavelength .

The photons that make up these rings or some other cross-sectional figures would ideally look something like this:

If the cross section of the ring S is less than the distance between the slits, then there will be no interference picture. The bags must cover both slots at the same time.



We receive such photons from the Sun. The sun is far away and the rays from it come to us in parallel. From the light bulb, rare elementary photons fly in parallel. But the farther from the light bulb, the greater the relative parallelism. Because of this parallelism, we have to cut out part of the beam with the preliminary screen. Wavelength Λ for each radiation its own, the red component has a length of 740 nm, and the violet 380 nm. These are the distances between photons (sets of elementary photons).

Таким образом, мы перед щелями мы всегда имеем волну «некоторого вещества, состоящего из мириад крохотных точечных частиц» по выражению Пенроуза.

These tiny point particles are nothing more than photons and they are not point, but linear, which is extremely important. You want to call them strings or Feynman arrows. Each of the elementary photons passes through only one slit, and does not know and does not want to know whether the second slit is open or closed. Nature is doing its job.

For an elementary photon, the gap is represented by a tunnel with atoms sticking out from all sides with their electrons. The narrower the gap, the more difficult it is for a photon to slip without interacting with some electron. And the interaction always leads to a change in the direction of the photon. This leads to the fact that a scattered hemispherical ring is obtained at the exit of the slit. If we consider the initial wave to be almost flat, then at the exit of the slit it is a spherical wave. In it, elementary photons are partially mixed, turned around and moved.

And now the most important thing. In these waves, there seems to be a complete disorder in the elementary photons. That photon is short, that is long, and that one is even longer. They are all randomly out of phase in each wave. How can they reinforce or cancel each other, in Penrose's words?

Modern science has taught us to add sinusoids taking into account phases. But sinusoids are virtual objects and therefore they have their own virtual laws. And nature works with objectively existing momentum and photon energy. And the adder (electron) within large limits does not care when the photons begin to act on it. In a way, a swing doesn't care when three people give them their impulse, as long as it happens on an upward or downward branch. That is, when the swing is at the top and began to move downward, one person can push it right away, another is somewhere in the middle, and the third is at the bottom. And they can push all three at the same time. If the impulses are the same, then the result will be the same.

The situation is the same with photons. If two photons are on some electron even with a shift relative to each other, then they can add up on the electron and then be emitted in the form of this sum.



Consider the area of the screen enlarged to atoms. Of course, this is an idealized scheme. Photons from slit 1 (red arrows) and photons from the second slit (blue arrows) fall on this area. Depending on the distance from the slits, photons arrive at the same atom at different times. Suppose a photon from slit 1 hits electron 1 at the point а of the electron orbit. The momentum of the photon will slow down the electron. If the photon is not emitted to the point б and at this time a photon from the second slit will hit the same electron, then this photon will accelerate the electron. That is, one photon slowed down the electron, and the second accelerated the electron. The electron, according to this sum of forces, will acquire some speed. And according to this speed, it will emit or absorb a photon.

On electron 1, photons will be subtracted. The subtraction of photons will also occur on electron 2. Both subtraction and addition can occur on electron 3. And on electrons 4, 5, 6 the addition of photons will take place. This is how subtraction and addition will go in a wave across the entire plane of the screen. Ideally, the results of subtraction and addition of photons can be photons of different lengths, from zero to the sum of quanta in both photons. If none of the results are resonant for a given electron, then the electron will radiate that sum. Since the frequencies of these emitted photons coincide with the frequency of the incident photons, it will be the same color, only of different intensities. Bands of varying intensity appear.

If, for example, the screen is a light-sensitive plate, then the total photons of a certain magnitude will transfer the silver atoms to other levels. And the total photons less than this value will be emitted by the atoms, and the atoms will remain in the same state. There will be light and dark stripes on the plate.

Learned people are confused and such a phenomenon. What about particles? They also create an interference picture. Yes, they do. Probably, many have seen the cartoon how a grandfather in glasses fired electrons from a cannon through two slits and received an interference picture. He is unaware that when he fires from a cannon, he accelerates the electrons that generate photons. And these photons create this picture.

If electrons accumulated on the screen in a strip, then their potential could be easily measured. On the light strip, one potential, and on the dark strip, another, and all disputes would stop. And it is absolutely impossible to imagine how the electrons in the bright stripes neutralize each other.

But besides this, there is another problem with particles. When we try to see a particle, that is, we take measurements, on one slit, then the interference stops. It is obvious that we intervened in the motion, thereby changing the parameters of the motion of this particle, and it left the interference process. Feynman defined interference as the passage of a particle through both slits. According to his theory, for example, an electron simultaneously moves along multiple paths to its destination. He flew to the crack, avoiding all obstacles and traps, and suddenly after the crack he got into our measuring device. He could not, having in my arsenal many ways of distribution, bypass our device. Take thousands of measurements and the result will be the same.

In general, we can say that there is no dualism in the concept, as scientists imagine it. And all the more so to raise this absurd, not subject to any logic, concept in the law of quantum mechanics is completely ridiculous.

Dualism exists only in this form. A photon consists of vortices of fields, call it waves, and photons moving one after another with a certain duty cycle (radiation frequency) represent a wave. The wave is not material, it is the organizer of material particles into motion, which we call a wave.

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