Why do bodies expand when heated? Quantum theory.

Everyone knows that bodies expand when heated and contract when cooled, but no one knows what physically occurs during this process. There are usually many examples of such expansion: joints between rails, between bridge spans, zigzags on various pipes, bimetallic plates, holes and balls, and many others. Everyone knows this very well. Heated up - increased, cooled down - decreased. True, there are anomalous zones near water, and possibly some other compounds, where the expansion coefficient has the opposite sign. Here the structure of the molecule is mixed in and such a wonderful result is obtained in the region of zero degrees. For now, I'll talk about normal expansion ratio.

Why, for example, does a heated ball expand in volume? Modern science, speaking with the lips of those who believe that they understand the phenomenon, claims that when heated, the atoms begin to vibrate more strongly and the higher the temperature, the more the atom vibrates and the more space it takes up. Point. And why he hesitates more, almost no one explains. Or they could come up with at least this version: thermal photons push atoms and swing them like a swing. After all, they say that the microwaves in the stove precisely push and twist the water molecules, which makes it warm. Perhaps many understand that these versions pose many other questions that have no answers. I will present a version that logically follows from the concept of a quantum. Articles "Quantum, what does it consist of" and "Quantum of energy, how it works and how it moves" .

Everyone knows that an electron can absorb or emit energy in the form of quanta, or rather photons. If the electron absorbed a photon , then it added energy to its body, and if it radiated, it will lose part of the energy, that is, part of itself. And energy is mass with a coefficient of the speed of light. So, whatever someone says, the mass of the electron changes in accordance with the amount of absorbed and emitted energy. The higher the speed we give to the electron, the more energy it emits. Article "Impact of force on an electron" .

When we cool a body, we create a kind of vacuum of thermal photons around it, which it could absorb, which somehow reduces the pressure of heat on the electron. Now the electron that emitted the photon will not be able to return to its previous level due to the lack of the required photon, which it can receive only from the external environment. The electron will lose part of itself and decrease in size. And as a result of this, it will approach the core, passing to the near level. It just so happens that the lower the temperature, the higher the speed of the electron in the atom and the closer it is pressed to the nucleus. Article "Atom, its device" .

Now everything is simple. With a decrease in temperature, the atoms of the body become smaller in their physical size, and do not become, for example, flat as in Einstein's. As the temperature rises, electrons absorb thermal photons, swelling and moving further and further away from the nucleus, and in the end they can leave the nucleus altogether, and we get plasma. In a closed volume, as a result of an increase in the volumes of atoms, large irregularities in their shape, and, naturally, their large impulses of motion, due to an increase in mass, pressure increases in the form of pushes of atoms with the walls of the vessel.

The following can be drawn from what has been said:

As the temperature rises, the atoms of the body physically increase in size due to the absorption of thermal photons , as a result of which the entire volume of the body increases .

Anyone who does not like these versions, and who believes that he knows Schrodinger, may build a more plausible version of the expansion of bodies from rising temperatures. Indeed, the probability depends on the temperature. Rain is more likely in summer than in winter. Only I dare to remind you that, according to Schrodinger, everything is probabilistically blurred, not only the electrons in the atom. The nucleus, neutrons, protons, quarks, and the whole atom are spreading out.

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